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GMAT CENTRAL -VERBAL ASSESSMENT; Time allotted: 45 Minutes.)


Q1.      SENTENCE CORRECTION:
Experienced employers recognize that business students who can assimilate different points of view are more effective as managers rather than the brilliant and original students that dogmatically adhere to their formulations.

rather than the brilliant and original students that

rather than are the brilliant and original students who

instead of the brilliant and original students who

than are the brilliant and original students, who

as compared to the brilliant and original students, who

Q2.     SENTENCE CORRECTION:
Although Women's work has changed considerably in the past 200 years, the conditions under which women work have changed little since before the Industrial Revolution: the segregation of jobs by gender, lower pay for women as a group, jobs that require relatively low levels of skill and offer women little opportunity for advancement all persist, while women's household labor remains demanding.

the segregation of jobs by gender, lower pay for women as a group, jobs that require relatively low levels of skill and offer women little opportunity for advancement all persist, while women's household labor remains demanding.

the segregation of jobs by gender, lower pay for women as a group, and jobs that require relatively low levels of skill and offer women little opportunity for advancement all persist, while women's household labor remains demanding.

the segregation of jobs by gender, the lowering of pay for women as a group, and jobs requiring relatively low levels of skill and offering women little opportunity for advancement all persisting while women's household labor remains demanding.

job segregation by gender, lower pay pay for women as a group, relatively low level skilled jobs offering women little opportunity for advancement all persist, not to mention women's household labor remaining demanding.

the segregation of jobs by gender, the lower pay for women as a group, the jobs that require low levels of skill with little opportunity for advancement all persist, as well as women's household labor remains demanding.

Q3.     CRITICAL REASONING
Body temperature varies over a 24-hour period, with a low point roughly between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. Speed of reaction varies in line with body temperature, such that whenever body temperature is low, speed of reaction is low. If low body temperatures caused slow reaction, the speed of reaction should increase if we artificially raised body temperature during the period 4 a.m. to 5 a.m. But the speed of reaction does not increase.

Which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the above statements?

Low speeds of reaction cause low body temperature.

Low speeds of reaction do not cause low body temperature.

Low body temperatures do not cause low speeds of reaction.

Low body temperatures cause low speeds of reaction.

Artificially raising body temperature causes increased speed of reaction.

Q4.     CRITICAL REASONING
There are tests to detect some of the rare genetic flaws that increase the likelihood of certain diseases. If these tests are performed, then a person with a rare genetic flaw that is detected can receive the appropriate preventive treatment. Since it costs the health-care system less to prevent a disease than to treat it after it has occurred, widespread genetic screening will reduce the overall cost of health care.

The argument assumes which of the following?

Most diseases linked to rare genetic flaws are preventable.

The cost of treating patients who would, in the absence of screening, develop diseases that are linked to rare genetic flaws would be more than the combined costs of widespread screening and preventive treatment.

The tests available currently to detect some of the rare genetic flaws are reliable in their prediction of occurrence of certain diseases.

The health care system can afford the cost of screening for rare genetic flaws using the tests.

There are no other factors contributing to the likely occurrence of certain diseases than the rare genetic flaws.

Q5-Q9 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
READING COMPREHENSION

       How does the brain know when carbohydrates have
      been or should be consumed? The answer to this question
      is not known, but one element in the explanation seems to be
      the neurotransmitter serotonin, one of a class of chemical
[5] mediators that may be released from a presynaptic neuron
      and that cause the transmission of a nerve impulse across
      a synapse to an adjacent postsynaptic neuron. In general,
      it has been found that drugs that selectivly facilitate
      serotonin-mediated neurotransmission tend to cause weight
[10] loss, whereas drugs that block serotonin-mediated
      transmission have often the opposite effect: they often induce
      carbohydrate craving and consequent weight gain.

            Seratonin is a derivative of tryptophan, an amino acid
       that is normally present at low levels in the bloodstream.
[15] The rate of conversion is affected by the proportion of
      carbohydrates in an individual's diet: carbohydrates stimulate the
      secretion of insulin, facilitating the uptake of most amino acids
      into peripheral tissues such as muscles. Blood tryptophan levels,
      however, are unaffected by insulin so that the proportion of
[20] tryptophan in the blood relative to the other amino acids
      increases when carbohydrates are consumed. Since tryptophan
      competes with other amino acides for transport across the blood-
      brain barrier into the brain, insulin secretion indirectly speeds
      tryptophan's entry into the central nervous system, where,
[25] in special cluster of neurons, it is converted into serotonin.

            The level of serotonin in the brain in turn affects
      the amount of carbohydrate an individual chooses to eat.
      Rats that are allowed to choose among synthetic foods
      containing different proportions of carbohydrate and protein
[30] will normally alternate between foods containing mostly
      protein and those containing mostly carbohydrate. However,
      if rats are given drugs that enhance the effects of serotonin,
      the rats' carbohydrate intake is reduced. On the other hand
      when rats are given drugs that interrupt serotonin-
[35] mediated neurotransmission, their brains fail to respond when
       carbohydrates are eaten so that the desire for them persists.

            In human beings a serotonin-like drug,d -fenfluramine
       (which releases serotonin into brain synapses and
       then prolongs its action by blocking its reabsorption
      into presynaptic neuron), selectively suppresses carbo-
[40] hydrate snacking (and its associated weight gain) in people
       who crave carbohydrates. In contrast, drugs that block
       serotonin-mediated transmission or that interact with neuro-
      transmitters other than serotonin have the opposite effect: they
      often induce carbohydrate craving and subsequent weight gain.
[45] People who crave carbohydrates report feeling refreshed and
      invigorated after eating a carbohydrate-rich meal (which
      would be expected to increase brain serotonin levels).
      In contrast, those who do not crave carbohydrates become
      sleepy following a high-carbohydrate meal. These findings
[50] indicate that serotonin has other effects that may be useful
      indicators of serotonin levels in human beings.

Q5.      Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

The body's need for carbohydrates varies with the level of serotonin in the blood.

The body's use of carbohydrates can be regulated by the administration of serotoninlike drugs.

The role of serotonin in regulating the consumption of carbohydrates is similar in rats and in humans.

The body's desire for carbohydrates can be influenced by serotonin or serotoninlike drugs.

Tryptophan initiates a chain of events that regulates the body's use of carbohydrates.


Q6.     The term "rate" in line 15 refers to the rate at which

Serotonin is produced from tryptophan

Carbohydrates are taken into the body.

carbohydrates stimulate the secretion of insulin.

insulin facilitates the uptake of amino acids into peripheral tissues.

tryptophan enters the bloodstream.


Q7.      It can be inferred that a person is likely to crave carbohydrates when

the amount of insulin produced is too high.

the amount of serotonin in the brain is too low.

more tryptophan than usual crosses the blood-brain barrier into the brain.

neurotransmission by neurotransmitters other than serotonin is interrupted.

amino acids other than tryptophan are taken up by peripheral tissues.


Q8.      The information in the passage indicates that if humans were given a drug that inhibits the action of serotonin, which one of the following might be expected to occur?

Subjects would probably show a preference for carbohydrate-rich snacks rather than protein-rich snacks.

Subjects would probably become sleepy after eating a carbohydrate-rich meal.

Subjects would be more likely to lose weight than before they took the drug.

Subjects' blood tryptophan levels would probably increase.

Subjects' desire for both carbohydrates and proteins would increase.


Q9.     It can be inferred that after a person has taken d-fenfluramine, he or she will probably be

inclined to gain weight.

sleepy much of the time.

unlikely to crave carbohydrates.

unable to sleep as much as usual.

likely to secrete more insulin than usual.


Q10. SENTENCE CORRECTION
Defining a medical practitioner as 'any individual whose occupation is basically concerned with the care of the sick', the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers.

the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers.

the women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 according to the researchers.

in 1560, the number of women medical practitioners was estimated to be 60 in the city of London by the researchers.

the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in in the city of London at 60 in 1560.

the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London to be 60 in 1560.

Q11. SENTENCE CORRECTION
Just when bankruptcy reform appears headed for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp raise in personal bankruptcies over the next few years signalling much pain for the many hard-pressed households, little, if any, gain for lenders, and major problems for the overall economy.

Just when bankruptcy reform appears headed for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp raise in

Even as bankruptcy reform appears headed for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp rise in

While the bankruptcy reform appears headed for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp rising of

Although the bankruptcy reform appears headed for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp rise of

Despite the bankruptcy reform appearing to head for a certain passage in the Congress, the economic omens point to a sharp rise in

Q12. SENTENCE CORRECTION
The President of Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos Ghosn, is a globalist with Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, who earned his spurs as an aggressive turnaround artist at Michelin and, later, at Renault.

The President of Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos Ghosn, is a globalist with Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, who earned his spurs

The President of Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos Ghosn, is a globalist with Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, having his spurs earned

A globalist with Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, the President of Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos Ghosn, earned his spurs

As a globalist, the President of Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos Ghosn, with Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, earned his spurs

Being of Lebanese heritage, French education, and Brazilian passport, the Presidentof Japan's Nissan Motor Company, Carlos, Ghosn, earned his spurs

Q13. CRITICAL REASONING

A certain experimental fungicide causes no harm to garden plants if it is diluted at least to ten parts water to one part fungicide. Moreover, this fungicide is known to be so effective against powdery mildew that it has the capacity to eliminate it completely from rose plants. Thus this fungicide, as long as it is sufficiently diluted, provides a means of eliminating powdery mildew from rose plants, without entailing any risk of harm to the other garden plants.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

There is no alternative method to application of fungicide for eliminating powdery mildew from rose plants without harming other garden plants.

When the fungicide is sufficiently diluted, it does not pose any harm to people, animals, or beneficial garden insects.

Powdery mildew is the only fungal infection affecting rose plants.

There are no antidotes available if the fungicide is not sufficiently diluted inadvertently.

The effectiveness of the fungicide on powedery mildew does not depend on its concentration levels greater than one part in ten parts of water.

Q14. CRITICAL REASONING

From an analysis of broken pottery and statuary, archaeologists have estimated that an ancient settlement in southwestern Arabia was established around 1000 B.C. However, new evidence suggests that the settlement is considerably older: tests show that a piece of building timber recently uncovered at the site is substantially older than the pottery and statuary.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the conclusion drawn from the new evidence?

The building timber bore marks indicating that it had been salvaged from an earlier settlement.

The pieces of pottery and fragments of statues anlayzed come from several parts of the site.

The tests used to determine the age of the pottery and statuary had been devised more recently than those used to determine the age of the building lumbar.

The type of pottery found at the site is similar to the type of pottery associated with civilizations that existed before 1000 B.C.

The site has yielded many more samples of pottery and statuary than of building lumbar.

Q15. CRITICAL REASONING

Financial success does not guarantee happiness. This claim is not a proverbial wisdom but a fact verified by statistics. In a recently concluded survey, only one-third of the respondents who claimed   to have achieved financial success reported that they were happy.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the conclusion drawn from the survey results?

Most of the respondents who claimed to be financially successful were in fact financially successful.

Respondents to surveys on financial success have been known to exaggerate their level of achievement in the past surveys.

Many of the respondents who claimed to have achieved financial success and to be unhappy were happy in the past.

Many of the respondents who claimed to be not financially successful were, in fact, financially successful.

Most of the respondents who reported that they were happy were indeed happy.

Q16-20 ARE BASED ON THIS PASSAGE.
READING COMPREHENSION

(This passage was excerpted from an article that was published in 1982.
All temperatures are in degrees Celcius.)

      Warm-blooded animals have elaborate physiological controls
       to maintain constant body temperature (in humans, 37o C).
       Why then during sickness should temperature rise, apparently
       increasing stress on the infected organism? It has long been
[5] known that the level of serum iron in animals falls
       during infection. Garibaldi first suggested a relationship
       between fever and iron. He found that microbial synthesis
       of siderophores -- substances that bind iron -- in bacteria
       of the genus Salmonella     declined at environmental
[10] temperatures above 37o C and stopped at 40.3o C.
       Thus, fever would make it difficult for an infecting
       bacterium to acquire iron and thus to multiply.
       Cold-blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis
       because their body temperatures can be controlled in
[15] the laboratory. Kluger reported that of iguanas infected
       with the potentially lethal bacterium A. hydrophilia,
       more survived at temperatures of 42o than at 37o,
       even though healthy animals prefer the lower temperature.
       When animals at 42o were injected with an iron solution,
[20] however, mortality rates increased significantly.
       Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur
       in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed.


16. The passage is primarily concerned with attempts to determine

the role of siderophores in the synthesis of serum iron.

new treatment for infections caused by A. hydrophilia.

the function of fever in warm-blooded animals.

the mechanisms that ensure constant body temperature.

iron utilization in cold-blooded animals.


17. According to the passage, Garibaldi determined which of the following?

That serum iron is produced through microbial synthesis.

That microbial synthesis of siderophores in warm-blooded animals is more efficient at higher temperatures.

That only iron bound to other substances can be used by bacteria.

That there is a relationship between the synthesis of siderophores in bacteria of the genus Salmonella  and environmental temperatures.

That bacteria of the genus Salmonella  require iron as a nutrient.


18. Which of the following can be inferred about warm-blooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage?

The body temperatures of warm-blooded animals cannot be easily controlled in the laboratory.

Warm-blooded animals require more iron in periods of stress than they do at other times.

Warm-blooded animals are more comfortable at an environmental temperatures of 37 degrees than they are at a tempterature of 42 degrees.

In warm-blooded animals, bacteria are responsible for the production of siderophores, which, in turn, make iron available to the animal.

In warm-blooded animals, infections that lead to fever are usually traceable to bacteria.


19. If it were to be determined that "similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals" (lines 21-22), which of the following, assuming each is possible, is likely to be the most effective treatment for warm-blooded animals with bacterial infection?

Administering a medication that lowers the animals' body temperature.

Injecting the animals with an iron solution.

Administering a medication that makes serum iron unavailable to bacteria.

Providing the animals with reduced-iron diets.

Keeping the animals in an environment with temperatures higher than 37 degrees Celcius.


20. In Kluger's experiment with Iguanas, the passage supports which of the following about why the animals at 42 degrees died when injected with an iron solution?

Because the healty Iguanas prefer lower temperature than 42 degrees.

Because the lethal bacterium A. hydrophilia  multiplies rapidly at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures.

Because, although higher temperatures make it difficult for the invading bacterium to acquire iron through synthesis and multiply, the injected iron solution fed the bacteria and allowed them to multiply, killing the animals.

Because Iguanas are warm-blooded and cannot tolerate higher levels of serum iron.

Because the bacterium of the genus A. hydrophilia  is more lethal than bacterium of the genus Salmonella.

Q21 AND Q22 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING ARGUMENT CRITICAL REASONING ARGUMENT

HARRIS: Currently, hybrid animals are not protected by international endangered species regulations. But new techniques in genetic research suggest that the red wolf, long thought to be an independent species, is a hybrid of the coyote and the gray wolf. Hence, since the red wolf clearly deserves protection, these regulations should be changed to admit the protection of hybrids.

KAMINI: Yet hybrids do not need protection. Because a breeding population that arises through hybridization descends from independent species, if any such population were to die out, it could easily be revived by interbreeding members of the species from which the hybrid is descended.

Q21. Which of the following best states the point at issue between Harris and Kamini?

whether the red wolf actually descended from the gray wolf and the coyote.

whether there are some species that are currently considered endangered that are not in fact endangered.

whether the packs of red wolves that currently exist are in danger of dying out.

whether there are some hybrids that ought to be protected by endangered species regulations.

whether new techniques in genetic research should be used to determine which groups of animals constitute independent species and which ones constitute hybrids.


Q22. Kamini assumes which of the following in her argument?

The techniques currently used to determine the hybrid status of animals is reliable.

The international regulations protecting the species and subspecies are being enforced successfully.

The gray wolf has been successfully bred in captivity.

All hybrids are descendants of species are currently extant.

The coyote and the red wolf are not related genetically.


Q23. SENTENCE CORRECTION

There is a growing concern among the industry leaders that the New Economy companies are not as adept at managing their inventories as their old-line counterparts and, consequently, vulnerable to the vagaries of market realities.

at managing their inventories as their old-line counterparts and, consequently, vulnerable

at managing their inventories than their old-line counterparts and, consequently, are vulnerable

at managing their inventories as well as their old-line counterparts and, consequently, are vulnerable

at managing their inventories as their old-line counterparts were and, consequently, are vulnerable

with managing their inventories as their old-line counterparts are and, consequently, were vulnerable

Q24. SENTENCE CORRECTION

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Rober H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark make clear the United States of America and Europe virtually changed places in the productivity sweepstakes during the 1990's.

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Robert H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark make clear

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Robert H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark makes clear

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Robert H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark makes clear that

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Robert H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark make clear that

A new Conference Board analysis by economists Robert H. McGuckin and Bart van Ark makes it clear that

Q25. SENTENCE CORRECTION

It is widely believed in the papermaking industry that unless mills run continuously, a firm cannot make money and waste, estimated at 30% of overall mill cost, resulting from changing products 'on the run' is inevitable while the machine is achieving 'on grade' performance.

a firm cannot make money and waste, estimated at 30% of overall mill cost, resulting from changing products 'on the run'

a firm cannot make money and waste resulting from changing products 'on the run', estimated at 30% of overall mill cost

a firm cannot make money and that waste, estimated at 30% of overall mill cost and resulting from changing products 'on the run',

money cannot be made by a firm and waste, estimated at 30% of overall mill cost, resulting from changing products 'on the run'

that a firm cannot make money and that waste, estimated at 30% of overall mill cost, resulting from changing products 'on the run'


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